1. Adult squirrel monkeys were injected intravenously with doubly labelled lysophosphatidylcholine (a mixture of 1-[1-(14)C]palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoryl[Me-(3)H]choline; (3)H:(14)Cratio 3.75) complexed to albumin, and the incorporation into the brain was studied at times up to 3h. 2. After 20min, 1% of the radioactivity injected as lysophosphatidylcholine had been taken up by the brain. 3. Approx. 70% of the doubly labelled lysophosphatidylcholine taken up by both grey and white matter was converted into phosphatidylcholine, whereas about 30% was hydrolysed. 4. The absence of significant radioactivity in the phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acid and water-soluble fractions of plasma up to 30min after injection of doubly labelled lysophosphatidylcholine rules out the possibility that the rapid labelling of these compounds in brain could be due to uptake from or exchange with their counterparts in plasma. 5. The similarity between the (3)H:(14)C ratios of brain phosphatidylcholine and injected lysophosphatidylcholine demonstrates that formation of the former occurred predominantly via direct acylation. 6. Analysis of the water-soluble products from lysophosphatidylcholine catabolism revealed that appreciable glycerophosphoryl-[Me-(3)H]choline did not accumulate in the brain and that radioactivity was incorporated into choline, acetylcholine, phosphorylcholine and betaine. 7. The role of plasma lysophosphatidylcholine as both a precursor of brain phosphatidylcholine and a source of free choline for the brain is discussed.