We established an improved method for quantification of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) molecular species in neonatal serum using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of positive ionization for MS/MS was used. The method involved purification of phospholipids by solid phase extraction (SPE) from a 20-microl minimum specimen of serum. The assayed values of authentic 16:0-LPC and 18:0-LPC showed a linear response, and our quantitative results showed high precision for the all species of PC and LPC. Then, we quantified PC and LPC in adult and neonatal serum and compared them. Day 0-1 neonatal serum 16:0-, 18:0-, 18:1-, 18:2-LPC levels were significantly lower than adult ones. All species LPC levels in the day 0-1 neonates were significantly lower than day 4-8 neonates. Day 0-1 neonatal serum 16:0/18:2-, 18:0/18:2-PC levels were significantly lower than adult ones. Our method is advantageous for precise assessments of the relationships between PCs/LPCs levels and neonatal infectious diseases.